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The Rockefeller Report 1/2

From: Ian Read <>
Date: Sat, 11 Jan 1997 10:32:27 GMT
Fwd Date: Sat, 11 Jan 1997 10:40:27 -0500
Subject: The Rockefeller Report 1/2


From: Don Allen (1:3618/2.0)
Subj: 01:Briefing Document

Hi All,

It may not sit too well with the folks who authored this document
to have the _entire_ document being posted on computer networks. However,
since I do have the complete 169 page document sitting here and have
read through a large majority of it, it's my opinion that most of this
information has already been released into the public domain over the
last 25 years in one form or another, specifically, the case histories. For
this reason, I feel that the smaller _overview_ of the document should
be posted as opposed to the entire file. Italicized emphasis in the original
document has been identified with the use of the underscore character. Any
typo/scanner errors are most likely mine.

This is being posted for Educational and Informational purposes only.



                     LETTER OF ENDORSEMENT

                            for the

                      BRIEFING DOCUMENT



                                             December 15, 1995

To whom it may concern:

We believe that this Briefing Document on Unidentified Flying Objects
presents the best available evidence for the existence of UFOs.
Although just a brief sample of the scientific and military evidence
available worldwide is given, it represents some of the most
_carefully _documented incidents.

While several governments of the world have dealt with this problem,
as you can see in the enclosed report we think that these governments
should make available now all the UFO evidence they have collected,
for a thorough and open inquiry by the scientific community.

The political constraints that imposed the rule of secrecy during the
Cold War are no longer justified and the solution to the UFO mystery
may represent both a scientific and social breakthrough.

We, the undersigned, endorse the information contained in this
Briefing Document as the best available evidence from open sources.

CUFOS (Center for UFO Studies):     President               [signature]
                                    Dr. Mark Rodeghier

FUFOR  (Fund for UFO Research):     Chairman                [signature]
                                    Mr. Richard H. Hall

MUFON    (Mutual UFO Network):      International Director  [signature]
                                    and President
                                    Mr. Walter H. Andrus


Without the enthusiastic assistance of many people, the creation of
this Briefing Document would have been far more difficult, if not
impossible. While there are too many for us to thank individually,
some deserve special recognition:

     Laurance S. Rockefeller, for his vision and support, financial
     and otherwise, and George Lamb, for his day-to-day interest and
     for serving so effectively as liaison for Mr. Rockefeller.

     Marie "Bootsie" Galbraith, for the original idea and for hundreds
     of hours of turning it into reality. Sandra Wright, for making
     her BSW Foundation available as the umbrella under which all the
     work could be done. Tina Nighman, for applying her talents and
     good humor to a wide range of administrative assistance.

     The leadership of the UFO Research Coalition: the Center for UFO
     Studies, the Fund for UFO Research and the Mutual UFO Network,
     for their cooperative efforts and total support.

     Major General Wilfred De Brouwer, Deputy Chief of the Royal
     Belgian Air Force; Dr. Claude Poher, founder of the Groupe
     d'Etudes des Phenomenes Aerospatiaux Non-identifie's (GEPAN),
     Jean-Jacques Velasco, Director of the Service d'Expertise des
     Phenomenes de Rentrees Atmospheriques (SEPRA); the Societe Belge
     d'Etude des Phenomenes Spatiaux (SOBEPS), and internationally
     recognized UFO authorities Stanton T. Friedman and Timothy Good,
     for generously giving their time and help.

The Letter of Endorsement

Part 1. Overview ......................................................3

     Government Secrecy ...............................................5
     The Case for UFO Reality .........................................7
     The UFO Cover-Up ................................................15
     Summary of Quotations ...........................................19

Part 2. Case Histories ...............................................25

     Introduction ....................................................27
      1944-45: "Foo Fighters" Over Europe and Asia ...................31
      1946:  "Ghost Rockets Over Scandinavia"   ......................33
      1947:  First American Sighting Wave   ..........................37
      1952:  Second American Sighting Wave   .........................41
      1956:  Radar/Visual Jet Chase Over England   ...................45
      1957:  Third American Sighting Wave   ..........................47
      1958:  Brazilian Navy Photographic Case   ......................51
      1964:  Landing Case At Socorro, New Mexico   ...................57
      1967:  Physiological Case At Falcon Lake, Canada   .............61
      1975:  Strategic Air Command Bases UFO Alert   .................65
      1976:  Multiple Witness Case In The Canary Islands  ............69
      1976:  UFO Dog-Fight Over Tehran   .............................75
      1980:  UFO Incidents at Rendlesham Forest, England .............79
      1981:  Physical Trace Case In Trans-en-Provence, France   ......85
      1986:  Jet Chase Over Brazil   .................................93
      1986:  Japan Airlines 747 Case Over Alaska   ...................99
      1989:  Multiple Witness Case At Russian Missile Base   ........103
      1989-90: UFO Sighting Wave In Belgium .........................109
      1991-94: Recent Cases .........................................115
      Summary .......................................................117

 Part 3. Quotations..................................................119

      Characteristics of IFOs and UFOs ..............................159
      Terminology of UFOs ...........................................160
      International Agreements and Resolutions ......................161
      Recommended Reading ...........................................166
      Resource Catalogs .............................................167
      CUFOS, FUFOR and MUFON ........................................168

                          Part 1.  Overview

                               - 5 -

                         GOVERNMENT SECRECY

In a democracy, the decision where to draw the line between a
citizen's right to know and the government's right to secrecy for
national security reasons must be made by appropriate members of the
society. This issue has become the focus of much attention today and
is especially relevant to an ongoing discussion, both inside and
outside Congress, regarding UFO phenomena.

For obvious reasons, military services and the intelligence agencies
must maintain a certain amount of secrecy. However, in recent decades,
and especially since the end of the Cold War, many observers believe
that the use of government secrecy has become excessive.

The power of government employees to restrict access to reports which
they write by classifying them "confidential," "secret" or even "top
secret" is often absolute. Once these reports are classified, they can
only be declassified by the originator or by a special procedure that
moves along at a glacial pace. Nor does the Freedom of Information Act
(FOIA) help very much. It does not apply to most classified material.
Meanwhile, our criminal statutes protect against the unauthorized
revelation of classified materials.

Secrecy, like power, lends itself to abuse. Behind the shield of
secrecy, it is possible for an agency or service to avoid scrutiny and
essentially to operate outside of the law. Accountability to the
taxpayers and to the Congress can be conveniently avoided.

The vast majority of people employed by the U.S. government do not
have access to classified information. Even those with secret and top
secret clearances will not have access to all highly classified
information. Furthermore, it is doubtful whether any member of
Congress can have access to all such information. Given the size of
the government bureaucracy and high degree of compartmentalization
that exists within it, it is conceivable that even the President
himself is not fully briefed on matters classified as "above top
secret." Such information, allowing access only on the strictest
"need-to-know" basis, is not necessarily given to senior elected
officials who come and go and can therefore be regarded as temporary,
political and unreliable.

Such is the case for top secret UFO information. In 1980, for example,
researchers requesting information through the FOIA learned of the
existence of 156 top secret UFO-related documents held by the
National Security Agency (NSA). This lead was not found through the
NSA itself, but through internal references in UFO-related documents
held by other government agencies. When the researchers filed a FOIA
request for the 156 NSA UFO documents, they were denied access to all
of them. They appealed, but Judge Gerhard Gesell of the First Federal
Court, District of Columbia, after reviewing the 21-page written
argument submitted by the NSA, denied their appeal. The 21-page
summary was later released, but even in this summary most of the
information was blacked out.

(1) Judge Gesell Ruling re National Security Agency, November 14, 1980.

                               - 6 -

Such action seems inconsistent with a government that officially
downplays the existence of true UFOs, and officially states that there
is no threat to national security.

In the case of UFO phenomena, the question must be asked: what would
give an un-elected government official the right to keep this
information to himself, thereby depriving the rest of the world of
possible knowledge of almost inconceivable magnitude and consequence?
Such elitism by the officials of any government, much less a government
based on the principles of democracy and individual rights, is a gross
injustice not only to its ovn people, but to all people.

At issue, in this case, is access to knowledge perhaps so profound
that it affects not only our very perspective on man's place in the
universe, but also perhaps his continued presence on this planet. If
the UFO phenomenon is real, we have clear evidence that an unknown
technology is at work, whose potential could be enormous for the good
of mankind - a potential source, for example, for useful energy benign
to the environment.

To acknowledge the enormous gap between our present understanding of
science and what is being evidenced, would provide the urgently needed
challenge to the scientific establishment to examine where some of its
basic assumptions might be faulty and to move berond them.

Is it possible that a few privileged individuals have access to this
information while denying it to the electorate for "national security"
reasons, so that it can be privately studied? In a democracy, should
not this decision be made by our _elected officials and be based upon an
informed discussion?

      "UFO research is leading us kicking and screaming into the
      science of the twenty-first century.

      "I have begun to feel that there is a tendency in 20th Century
      science to forget that there will be a 21st Century science,
      and indeed a 30th Century science from which vantage points our
      knowledge of the universe may appear quite different than it
      does to us. We suffer, perhaps, from temporal provincialism, a
      form of arrogance that has always irritated posterity." (From a
      letter by Dr. J. Allen Hynek to Science magazine, August 1.

      Dr. J. Allen Hynek, Northwestern University astronomer;
      scientific consultant on UFOs to the U.S. Air Force from 1948
      until 1969. Founder of the private Center for UFO Studies in

                               - 7 -

                   THE CASE FOR UFO REALITY

As long as men and women have talked about strange sights in the
skies, two primary questions have been asked about what has come to be
called Unidentified Flying Objects:

     1. Are they real, or are they just honest mistakes?

     2. If they are real, could they be ships from some other world?

In this century, it started with the "foo fighters" of World War II:
glowing balls that flew in formation or "played tag" with military
airplanes over Europe and the Pacific. Suspected of being prototype
enemy weapons, they never displayed hostility and when the war was
over, they were all-but-forgotten.

In 1946, the Scandinavian countries reported many hundreds of "ghost
rockets" which flew low and silently, and often slowly. Efforts to
blame them on nearby Soviet tests of captured German missiles failed
when it was learned that no such tests had taken place.

The first major American wave of sightings of "flying discs" began in
the early summer of 1947. Within two weeks, at least 1,000 sightings
were recorded of fast silvery discs seen in the daytime. The first
military studies concluded they were real and of unknown nature and
origin. (2)

>From then on, UFOs seemed to fly at will over all parts of the world:
fast and exotic, untouchable and and unproven. By the 1990s, there had
been over 100,000 reported sightings, many by airline pilots and
military pilots and other qualified witnesses.

Despite the steady accumulation of a vast quantity of information
about the appearance and behavior of UFOs, little light has been shed
on the two questions posed at the beginning. The armed services and
universities, as well as private groups and individuals, have devoted
a great amount of time to investigating UFOs, yet there is no
consensus about their nature, origins or purpose.

 Still, if a close look is taken at the best available evidence, it is
 possible to deal with what is known about UFOs, and what may
 reasonably be assumed. The point we will make is that the evidence to
 support the conclusion that UFOs are unknown aircraft/spacecraft
 seems to be overwhelming.


(2)  Memo from Lt. Gen. Nathan Twining, Commanding General of the Air
     Materiel Command, Wright Field, to Gen. Spaatz, Commanding General of
     the U.S. Army Air Forces, September 23, 1947.

                               - 8 -

Visual Evidence

Most of what is "known" about UFOs comes from individuals'
descriptions of what they say they saw. If the individuals are
reliable and knowledgeable about the sky, the information stands a
good chance of being useful. This is the source of the case's
"credibility," one of the two primary criteria recognized by the late
Dr. J. Allen Hynek, long a consultant on UFOs to the U.S. Air Force,
and later the founder of the private Center for UFO Studies.

Dr. Hynek's other criterion is "strangeness," meaning the extent to
which a reported observation differs from normal airplanes,
satellites, meteors, etc. A large aluminum-looking sphere which
maneuvers violently and changes speed abruptly, rates higher for
"strangeness" than a somewhat peculiar light seen in the night sky.

It is the reports which rate highest in both "credibility" and
"strangeness" that form the heart of the UFO mystery. Are they indeed
convincing observations of unknown aircraft/spacecraft, or are they
merely strangely shaped clouds or balloons seen under unusual lighting
conditions, or some other natural or manmade phenomena?

Radar Evidence

Radar has played a major role in UFO sightings, repeatedly confirming
the presence of something unidentified which responds to radar much as
an airplane does. Clouds and other weather phenomena show up on radar,
but any experienced operator can tell the difference between weather
and something solid.

On popular explanation for radar/visual reports is temperature
inversion. This was first brought to public attention following two
nights of UFO sightings over Washington D.C., in 1952. Inversions, the
cause of mirages, probably never caused these or any other UFO
reports. According to a 1969 study by the Air Force Environmental
Technical Applications Center, the conditions needed to produce the
UFO-like effects attributed to inversions cannot exist in the Earth's
atmosphere. (3)

The most thoroughly investigated recent radar/visual UFO sightings
occurred in Belgium and Russia. Military jet interceptors were
launched following observations from the ground. Ground-based and
airborne radars then confirmed what was being seen visually, including
high speeds and violent maneuvers far beyond the capability of the
best modern warplanes. In both countries, high government officials
admitted they were baffled.

While the human eye can be fooled, and radar can be fooled, it is
considered extremely unlikely that both can be fooled, in exactly the
same way, at exactly the same time. Thus radar/visual reports rate
among the most convincing of all types of UFO sightings.

(3) Menkello, F.V., "Quantitative Aspects of Mirages," USAF
    Environmental Technical Applications Center, 1969.


                               - 9 -

Physical Evidence

UFOs have been seen high in the sky, near to the ground, on the
ground, and even rising from water. If some UFOs have landed, it is
reasonable to suspect that some of them may have left traces behind,
and indeed that is the case. Imprints, residues, charred and broken
tree branches and rocks are among the bits of evidence claimed for UFO
landings. Furthermore, under microscopic examination, some residues
exhibit strange and unusual characteristics.

Perhaps the most well known example of a physical trace case in the
United States occurred in 1964 near Socorro, New Mexico, where a
policeman reported seeing an egg-shaped craft sitting on slender legs
in an open field. When it had flown away, he and a second policeman
inspected the area where it had been parked and found depressions in
the dirt, as well as still smoldering, blackened shrubs. The sighting
was investigated within two hours by men from U.S. Army Intelligence
and the FBI, followed a day later by the chief civilian scientific
consultant to Project Blue Book (the official Air Force investigation
of UFO sightings). All agreed that the primary witness was highly
reliable. Later, the final director of Blue Book called this case the
most puzzling of the approximately 12,500 in his files.

The best documented example of a physical trace case in Europe
occurred in Trans-en-Provence, France, where a farmer reported seeing
a saucer-shaped craft land on his property and then fly away after a
short while. Physical traces left on the ground were collected by the
police within 2 hours and later analyzed in several French government
laboratories. Microscopic analyses revealed anomalous biochemical and
electromagnetic effects on the soil and vegetation. The diector of the
Service d'Expertise des Phenomenes de Rentrees Atmospheriques (SEPRA,
formerly called GEPAN) at the National Center for Space Studies (CNES)
describes this case as the most puzzling UFO case in the French
government files. (5)

 Government Statements

 The involvement of the American government in the UFO mystery has long
 offered its own set of questions. Known investigations have produced
 ambiguous results, and explanations offered for specific cases have
 frequently been at odds with scientific reasoning. Sometimes,
 little-publicized official statements have supported the position
 that UFOs are real and unexplained.


(4) Steiger Brad, ed. _Project Blue Book, Ballantine Books, 196.

(5) GEPAN, Note Technique No. 16 Enquete 81/01, _Analyse d'une Trace,
    Toulouse, March 1, 1983. (English translation published in the
    MUFON UFO Journal, March 1984.)

                               - 10 -

Sometimes statements not intended for the public have been brought to
the surface by UFO researchers:

     July 30, 1947: "This Flying saucer" situation is not all
     imaginary or seeing too much in some natural phenomena. Something
     is really flying around. (6)

     Sept. 23, 1947: "The phenomenon reported is something real and
     not visionary or fictitious. " (7)

     Oct. 28, 1947. "It is the considered opinion of some elements
     that the object [sic may in fact represent an interplanetary
     craft of some kind."  (8)

     Dec. 10, 1948: "It must be accepted that some type of flying
     objects have been observed, although their identification and
     origin are not discernible." (9)

In 1948, the U.S. Air Force opened a publicly-known UFO investigation
called Project Sign. Later, it became Project Grudge and finally
Project Blue Book. In 1955, the U.S. Air Force released a study of
3,200 UFO reports it had received between 1947 and 1952. The private
Battelle Memorial Institute used the Air Force data to arrive at its
own conclusions: of the cases for which there was some conclusion,
almost 50% were either unexplained, or doubtfully explained.
Moreover, it was determined that the higher the qualifications of the
witnesses, the harder it was to explain the reports in terms of
common phenomena. (10)

In 1967, as Project Blue Book was coming under increasing attack from
the press and the public, the Air Force contracted with the University
of Colorado to make a final study of UFOs. In contrast to the totally
negative statements of the study director, Dr. Edward U. Condon, the
body of the f1nal report showed that about 30% of the cases studied
were left without explanation.

Comments on individual cases by University of Colorado scientists


(6) Air Force Base Intelligence Report, "Flying Discs," AFBIR-CO,
July 30, 1947.

(7) Twining, ibid

(8) Draft Intelligence Collections Memorandum issued by Brig. Gen.
George Shulgen, Chief of the Air Intelligence Requirements
Division of the Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff of the U.S.
Air Force, October 28, 1947.

(9) U.S. Air Intelligence Report 100-203-79, "Analysis of Flying
Objects in the U.S.," December 10, 1948.

(10) Air Force Project Blue Book, "Special Report No. 14 (Analysis of
Reports of Unidentified Aerial Objects)," May 5, 1955.


                               - 11 -

     "This is the most puzzling case in the radar/visual files. The
     apparently rational, intelligent behavior of the UFO suggests a
     mechanical device of unknown origin as the most probable

     "All factors investigated - geometric, psychological and physical
     - appear to be consistent with the assertion that an
     extraordinary flying object, silvery, metallic, disc-shaped, tens
     of meters in diameter, and evidently artificial, flew within sight
     of two witnesses. " (11)

Following the recommendation of the University of Colorado, Project
Blue Book was ended in late 1969, after almost 22 years of Air Force
official investigations. It left behind approximately 12,500 case
files, of which 585 were officially declared "Unknown." This means that
the project staff felt it had sufficient information about a case, but
were unable to supply a full explanation of it.

Cases lacking sufficient information for meaningful analysis were kept
separate. Furthermore, an official memo was released years later,
under the Freedom of Information Act, that made it clear that "reports
of unidentified flying objects _which could affect national security...
are not part of the Blue Book system." [emphasis added]. Such reports
"would continue to be handled through the standard Air Force
procedures designed for this purpose." (12)

In summary, it is apparent that the evidence - visual, radar and
physical - strongly suggests that more than mistaken observations of
conventional phenomena are involved in many UFO sightings. Witness
testimony, backed up by official U.S. government documents, point
toward the presence in the Earths atmosphere of apparently
manufactured craft that cannot be explained as mistaken observations
of acknowledged aircraft, spacecraft, atmospheric or astronomical

The Case For Extraterrestrial UFOs

 If UFOs are not anything known, then they must be unknown. What says
 "unknown" more powerfully than extraterrestrial?" In the absence of
 any specific knowledge of even a single extraterrestrial
 civilization, there are no constraints on theorizing about the
 nature, technology and behavior of one or more hypothesized alien

 But are UFOs extraterrestrial? Lacking proof, we must deal very
 carefully with any answers. It remains a possibility that some or all
 of the otherwise unexplained UFO reports


(11) Gillmor, Daniel S., ed., _Scientific Study of Unidentified Flying
     Objects, New York Times Books, 1969.

(12) Bolender, Brig. Gen. C.H., USAF, Memo re Project Blue Book,
     October 20, 1969.

                               - 12 -

Continue to Rockefeller Report (Part 2)

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